Modern condition of pollution of the Black Sea ecosystem, some paths of load reduction, data base development and data base exchange
V. Mikhailov, R. Lisowsky, T. Gavrilova, V. Anupriev
Ministry for ecology and natural resources of Ukraine
Ukrainian scientific centre of the ecology of sea (UkrSCES)
The ecological condition of the Black Sea ecosystem can be estimated as critical. This is linked to many reasons, one of which is that the sea is influenced by the economic activities of 162 million, human beings from 16 countries. The vulnerability of the Black Sea is linked to insulation from World ocean and significance of various sources of pollution, in particular by inorganic nutrient substances, household sewage waters and agricultural discharges. Also a huge quantity of marine pollutants are linked to trade, military fleet and the marine extraction of petroleum. The Black Sea discharge basin is five times more than the sea itself and covers huge territories of coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine and other countries).
Thus now it is possible to outline in priority order the main sources that influence the ecosystem of the Black Sea.
The main pollutant of the Black Sea, still, are river run off, which annually for one year equals 296 km3. The greatest run off is from the Danube river – 132 km3/years, Dnieper – 54 km3/years, Dniestr – 10 km3/years and other rivers. With river waters annually 4-5 km3 of sewage waters come to the Black Sea i.e. 4 % the total run off. They contain about 400 thousand tons of biogenic substances, 2 million tons of organic matter, 210 thousand tons of oil products, 20 thousand tons of detergents, 700 tons of fugitive phenols, 8 tons of hexachlorocyclohexane. The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus only in the Danube waters have increased for the last 10 years accordingly in 6 and 3 times, and in waters of Dnieper – in 2 and 6 times.
The irregular run off and pollution of river waters shows, that from the territory of Ukraine to the Danube comes 0,8 km3 of sewage waters, into Southern Bug – 1,8 km3. 80 % of the run off of Southern Bug to the Black Sea make sewage waters. Within the limits of Ukraine Dnieper receives 10,6 km3
of sewage waters. The discharge of sewage waters into Dniestr makes 3,4 km3. In this analysis the run off of the small rivers and rivers of Crimea are not taken into account.
In Fig. 1 the run off from the rivers Danube, Dniestr are shown. The analysis shows, that the maximal run off is by oil hydrocarbons. This is actual for the present time, since the Black Sea becomes a corridor of oil transportation’s. For example, in 1995 the export to the Black Sea of petroleum was 54 million tons, and 140 tons annually of petroleum comes to the ecosystem. In 1999-2000 the export of petroleum will make 60 million tons.
The coastal zone of the Black Sea – is one of the most densely occupied regions – by virtue of the favorable climatic factors, that entails development of industry, agriculture etc., and it in turn increments the increase of uncontrollable pollution of the Black Sea waters.
For 6 months of 1999 the gross ton-kilometre activity of ports in comparison with 1998 has increased by 17,7 %. The export component has increased by 22,3 % and by 11,0 % the import component. On 29,1 % the common gross ton-kilometre hauled of bulk cargoes, pyretic cargoes on 13,0% have increased. This increases considerably the pollution of the aquatory of the Black Sea. In Fig. 2 the oil spills for the last 18 years in the Ukrainian part of the Black Sea are shown, which happened at the expense of various factors.
For the last year the value of oil products in bottom sediments of ports were not moderated.
Concentrations of oil products in marine bottom sediments
of the ports of Ukraine 1997. UkrSCES
Concentration oil products
Besides port facilities the aquatory of the sea is polluted by sources that, directly discharge various substances to the sea. In Fig. 4 such sources are shown and the total annual amount of pollutants to the sea is given.
Considerable pollution of the surface of the Black Sea happens at the expense of atmosphere input. The coastal zone of the Black Sea is a breeze zone that gives the transfer of oil products to the aquatory first of all at the expense of transport vehicles, 60 % - of the pollution witch it gives. The mean value of the sea pollution through atmosphere reaches now up to 10 % of the total of all sources of pollution. The maximum pollution is located near the regions of Odessa, Sevastopol, and Kerch.
Figure 1. Sources of pollution-Rivers: Danube, Dniester
Figure 2. Annual quantity of large oil spills (more 800 m3)
Works on the extraction of petroleum and gas from the sea bottom recently have begun actively, that increases the pollution of the Black Sea ecosystem.
Now the Black Sea becomes a transport corridor of oil transport and products of its processing. It guesses construction of new offshore terminals in each country. For example the construction of big terminals is started in Turkey (port Samsun), Romania (port Constance), Bulgaria (port Burgas), Georgia (port Poti), Russia (port Novorossisk), Ukraine (port Usniya). All this will worsen the ecological situation on the whole aquatory of the Black Sea at expense of petroleum into the marine environment and surface atmosphere.
The term "petroleum" - has rather a fuzzy concept. For the purposes of natural use the definition of the International convention on pollution prevention from vessels Marpol - 73/78 is accepted, according to which this title is understood as crude oil, oil-fuel, oil precipitation, and oil residues. On the class perils, according to Marpol - 73/78, petroleum is a substance of average toxicity. The problem of oil pollution on the Black Sea coast has arisen in the second half of the fifties, and essentially increases now.
Monitoring that is conducted during the last 20 years on the pollution of the ecosystem of the Black Sea from that time has undergone significant changes. Three types of oil products are determined (oil slicks, tar balls, dissolved and dispersed oil).
Regional Monitoring Network of Azov-Black Sea Basin is presented on the Fig. 5.
On all levels of monitoring are investigated:
– the main hydro chemical mode;
– the hydro biological parameters;
– the main pollutants;
– the hydro meteorological mode;
– the radiochemical parameters in water bottom sediments, hydrobionts and surface atmosphere.
The first level is the monitoring of impact zones, i.e. most polluted aquatories. The researches are conducted every ten day’s. The frequency of a choice of a grid of ecological servers is chosen with a particular discretization necessary for the registration of all local processes and sources of pollution, which happen and are with in this aquatory;
The problems of priority at this level are:
– microbiological pollution;
– hydrological, synoptic etc. conditions on allocation and transference of numerous impurities;
This level of monitoring includes:
a)Inventory of land based sources (point, diffuse) with the complete chemical analysis;
b)Monitoring of beaches;
c)Monitoring of impact zones;
d)Development of water quality, bottom sediments, surface atmosphere standards.
The second level includes:
e) Monitoring of the shelf zone of the Black Sea.
The third level:
f) Background monitoring of the open part of the sea.
Carrying out monitoring guesses the investigations of the transfer and redistribution in the Black Sea ecosystem of the main pollutants. This is monitoring of the economic and opened parts of the sea. Transference and seasonal, annual variability in the allocation of the main pollutants trace the outcomes of this level of monitoring. We should note that till now in the Black Sea there is no legal sectioning into economic zones by the states. This circumstance aggravates the ecological condition of the Black Sea ecosystem, since any emergency situations beyond feature the 12-mile zone do not lay in the jurisdiction of the Black Sea countries, where there was an accident. Therefore application of penalty sanctions in these cases is not stipulated. Whereas, the oil slicks, under various synoptic conditions beyond the 12-mile zone can appear on the coast. The quantities of investigations are selected from this monitoring by the results of two levels of monitoring, including the on hydrochemistry and oceanography parameters. Thus the scientific - methodical basis of carrying out monitoring enables to spot the modern state and tendencies of variability in the distribution of hydrochemical parameters and pollutants, their climatic variability.
The results of three levels of monitoring enable:
– To determine the modern condition, dynamics of variability and regions of unloading of pollutants, (first of all oil products);
– To determine the strategy and acceptance of urgent measures on improvement of condition of the Black Sea ecosystem;
– To develop uniform criteria and standards of quality of marine waters, bottom sediments;
– To organize scientific management of the Black Sea ecosystem.
The modern state of pollution of coastal (recreational) zone of the Black Sea is characterized, by the last 15 years, as progressing anthropogenesis pollution; practically many pollutants are stationary components of coastal marine waters. Here by we have petroleum, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, organic matters, heavy metals, chlororganic pesticides, polychlorbiphenyls, synthetic surfactants and biogenic substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon).
In Fig. 6 the distribution of oil products in marine bottom sediments in various regions of the coastal zone of the Black Sea are shown. We should pay attention to the maximal pollution of bottom sediments that are registered in the region of the mouth of Danube.
In the common ecological plan there is a considerable concentration of oil products in the coastal zone that can be a trigger for secondary pollution of the Black Sea. The aliphatic hydrocarbons are concentrate in bottom sediments. In Fig. 7 the total quantity of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediments various locales are shown.
The most toxic part of oil products - polyaromatic hydrocarbons accumulating in coastal zone areas. In waters of the coastal zone concentrations of PAH vary from 0,2 mg/l up to 10 mg/l. And for the last 10 years a noticeable tendency of reduction of their concentration has not taken place. The annual concentration for coastal zone waters makes 1,1 mg/l. And the maximal concentration is dated for the Sevastopol region, where the navy of Ukraine and Russia is situated. In bottom sediments, oil products, are similar there is a considerable concentration of PAH.
Thus, the coastal zone of the Black Sea tests considerable water pollution and especially of bottom sediments by the sum of oil products and their various individual components, such as PAH. The position will change in the worse direction by the new strategy of over loading petroleum in the Black Sea corridor. It, in turn, will bring behind itself an ecological disaster of the Black Sea ecosystem.
In the Black Sea shelf zone there was a redistribution of oil products depending on meteorological conditions, and the synoptic situation. Light oil products 10 m are determined on the harbor area in concentrations varying in limits from 0,00 - up to 0,20 mg/l in depths 0-10 m.
In the cover water mass of the shelf zone oil products are determined in quantities not exceeding 0,05 mg/l. The average concentration of them on surface shelf zone does not exceed 0,05 mg/l. In the water column from 10-50 m the weighted-mean concentration makes 0,01 mg/l.
There is a tendency of concentrating oil products in bottom sediments of the shelf zone. The values of oil products in bottom sediments do not exceed 1gr/kg.
The aromatic component of oil products in shelf waters of the Black Sea does not exceed 2 mg/l on the surface and with depths are moderated up to
0,0mg/l. In bottom sediments the concentration of PAH do not exceed 3mg/kgs. The annual average value of PAH for the shelf zone of the Black Sea makes 0,28 mg/l.
These results allow to conclude, that oil products in shelf regions of the Black Sea are within the limits of 1 PAC (permissible allowable concentration) (0,05 mg/l), that is the sufficient basis of a heavy ecological situation of the aquatory. In the open part of the Black Sea oil products are present in very small quantities only sometimes exceeding in the column 0-10m - 0,05 mg/l, in many cases oil products in the column 0-10 m are not registered. The average annual value of oil products in the column 0-10 m makes 0,02 mg/l. For the last 5 years this value practically did not vary. The geographical distribution of oil products in the column of 0-10 m is varying only. In the water column up to 150 m practically oil products in the open part of the sea are not revealed determined. It is necessary to mark, that the considerable concentrations of oil products are registered on the surface of the seawater (layer not more than 1 mm), Fig. 11. This is connected with the physicochemical features of the microlayer. The effect of oil products on the main physicochemical mode of the surface here is most typical which considerably has varied for the last 10-15 years.
The 1992 data show, that the concentration of oil products vary from 0,00 – 0,54 mg/l. The maximal concentrations are dated for regions of major cities agglomerations of the Crimean and Odessa regions.
We can make conclusions such as:
1. The coastal zone of the Black Sea is considerably polluted, where the concentrations of oil products exceed PAC. The ecosystem is in a critical condition. Oil products considerably have changed the ecosystem of the coastal zone, first of all having destroyed the bioresources of the sea. The products of the sea in the coastal zone, and the Black Sea is only productive in the coastal zone because of the presence of H2S, are already polluted by oil products, that taking them in food becomes dangerous to the mankind.
2. The increase of transportations and the construction of terminals can bring the ecosystem to non-reversible consequences.
3. The considerable pollution oil products of the sea shelf zone up to 0,05mg/l results in regional changes of the ecosystem and will change the hydro chemical regime. First of all it will delete the stockpiles of phillophora, mussels and mollusks.
4. The presence of considerable concentrations of oil products on the surface of the sea can make global ecological changes in the bioefficiency and further can change the climate.
As oil (slicks) destroy caviar of many hydrobionts, and changes in physical properties of the surface, such as interfacial tension, viscosity etc., that can bring to changes of the energy exchange between the sea and atmosphere.
The information strategy on pollution monitoring and assessment for the countries of the Azov - Black Sea Region is very importance.
It is proposed that a system of centralized data storage be created which combines regional monitoring data with geographical information. Accessibility to the information would be by means of a regional WEB-site.
An increasingly important task for the countries of Black Sea Region is to provide and distribute information needed to assist the Contracting Parties in achieving an environmentally sound development of their different societies in support of a sustainable use of the Black Sea and its resources. Therefore RAC as the Regional centre of the Black Sea is co-ordinating international co-operation regarding the development of strategies for taking joint abatement measures through legally binding recommendations applied research, monitoring and assessment.
To distribute environmental knowledge is a task for the Contracting Parties, RAC, Focal Points as well as for the PIU, Secretariat. As the computerisation in the society continues it means that an increasingly larger amount of land and marine related information will be available in digital form and possibility to deal with in geographical information systems (GIS). Different data sheets can be laid over the map and analysis can be made related to requested information.
If RAC is going to be a Network Co-ordination Centre there is a need to develop a Web Site, including design, layout, content and planned functionality. The need for hardware and software need to be thoroughly considered, as well as the need for personnel to run the possible co-ordination centre. In addition to the layout and design of the WWW pages the following major functions should be included:
Relevant databases and query software. This activity includes the connections with relevant databases in the region, including RAC and Focal Points Data Centers.A data standard should be selected, and relevant software installed, configured and tested.
Web Database . Information and site links should be available on a continuous basis.
A Web-based Geographical Information System. This activity includes the creation of a Web-GIS function using products such as ArcView Internet Map Server software.
The Web-based Geographical Information System will include the following components:
– data on geographical features of the region as electronic maps in GIS format;
– an ecological database (characteristics of land-based sources of pollution);
– data on ecological monitoring of coastal waters;
– data on the condition of recreational zones;
– a structure of thematic ecological maps of the Black Sea coastal zone allowing estimation of the ecological situation in the region as a whole and in separate areas;
The structure of the ecological charts should include the following sections:
ecological charts based on an inventory of features (industrial and municipal sources of coastal pollution, recreational zones, tanker routes, winter resting and spawning areas for fish)
ecological charts based on estimates of features biogenic pollution of coastal waters (eutrophication), chemical pollution of coastal waters, maps of recreational potential;
ecological charts for decision makers (maps of marine water quality and bottom sediments of the region, zoning of coastal waters by water quality criteria);
ecological charts for the public. (A visual representation of the changes in ecological conditions in the Black Sea coastal regions of Ukraine will be included).
The system would have the capability to update the ecological data and geographical features of the region and would allow maintenance and updating of the files and charts to provide end users with current ecological information.
The deliverables will be structured around the proposed Web site and will include a thorough description of issues via an encyclopedia and a glossary of terms, in addition to the mapping of Ukraine’s coastal zone. The encyclopedia will be organized into five divisions: